|ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 110-114
Cardiac changes in severe and moderate acute malnutrition
Jeetendra Kumar Singh, Mukesh Kumar Prajapati, Deepak Dwivedi, Sunil Agnihotri
Department of Pediatrics, Shyam Shah Medical College, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||30-Mar-2021|
|Date of Decision||20-May-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||31-May-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Jun-2021|
Dr. Mukesh Kumar Prajapati
D-2/8 Doctors Colony, Rewa – 486 001, Madhya Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Objectives: To assess the cardiac changes in moderately malnourished (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) children. Methodology: A cross-sectional, observational study conducted over a period of 1 year. The study included 150 children, 50 from each group, first being children with SAM, second being MAM children, and third group included normally nourished, age-matched children between 6 and 60 months, admitted in the pediatric ward. Structural and functional echocardiography parameters were compared in these groups. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS software version 20. Results: SAM children showed significant reduction of structural (except left ventricular internal diameter [LVID]) and functional cardiac parameters as compared to other groups. Major anthropometric parameters including body surface area (BSA) were correlated with all structural cardiac parameters; left ventricular mass (LVM) strongly correlated (r = 0.773) but no correlation was found with functional cardiac parameters. Conclusion: Structural (except LVID) and functional cardiac changes were significantly reduced with malnourishment. We had also concluded BSA of children strongly correlated with structural cardiac parameters such as LVM and interventricular septum thickness with specific age and sex.
Keywords: Echocardiography, moderately malnourished, myocardial function, severe acute malnutrition
|How to cite this article:|
Singh JK, Prajapati MK, Dwivedi D, Agnihotri S. Cardiac changes in severe and moderate acute malnutrition. J Pediatr Assoc India 2020;9:110-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Singh JK, Prajapati MK, Dwivedi D, Agnihotri S. Cardiac changes in severe and moderate acute malnutrition. J Pediatr Assoc India [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Oct 1];9:110-4. Available from: http://www.jpai.in//text.asp?2020/9/3/110/320123
| Introduction|| |
Malnutrition in children is a worldwide health problem and is considered a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, approximately 2.1 million children die annually as a direct consequence of malnutrition., Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains a frequent cause of pediatric hospitalization in much of the developing world. According to National Family Health Survey-IV, in India, 35.8% of children below 60 months of age suffer from underweight (below 2 standard deviations, based on the WHO standard), but in Madhya Pradesh, it is so higher 42.8%.
Over several decades, investigators have tried to determine the most common causes of death
in children with SAM.,, Because malnourished children suffer from several alterations in body composition, with loss of heart and skeletal muscle mass, complicated by electrolyte abnormalities and mineral or Vitamin deficiencies that could produce cardiac abnormalities including hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, cardiac failure, and even sudden death.,,,,,,,
The present study was to see myocardial changes inform of structural and functional parameters, in severely, moderately malnourished (MAM), and normally nourished children
| Methodology|| |
A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in severe malnutrition therapeutic unit and Pediatric Cardiology Clinic of Department of Pediatrics in Tertiary Care Hospital of central India over a period of 12 months from October 2018 to September 2019. After ethical approval, informed consent was taken from parents of all children. Children were divided into three groups, Group 1 being children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), Group 2 being MAM children, and Group 3 included normally nourished children; age of children between 6 and 60 months admitted in the pediatric ward of both sexes. The study included 150 children, 50 from each group. A structured Performa was filled for every child enrolled in the study.
The inclusion criteria for SAM children (age 6 month to 60 month) were weight for height/length <3 standard deviation (SD), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) of <11.5 cm, and bipedal nutritional edema. MAM children were identified as weight for height/length between 2SD and 3SD and MUAC ≥11.5 and <12.5 cm.
Children who were born either premature or small for gestational age, known cardiac disease (congenital heart disease, pericarditis, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathy), severe anemia (hemoglobin level <6 g/dl), known metabolic and endocrine disorders, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorder, and any congenital malformation (e.g., cleft lip, cleft palate, and any major deformity) were excluded from the study.
The prevalence of cardiac changes in malnourished children was not known in Central India so we randomly selected 50 children for each SAM, MAM, and normal, respectively. All enrolled children underwent detailed history, clinical examination, including anthropometry (weight, length/height, mid-upper arm circumference, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), routine investigations including complete blood counts, serum electrolytes, and echocardiography to assess cardiac function.
M-mode, 2D-echocardiography was performed using Philips HD7XE Echo Machine to record following parameters; structural cardiac parameters in form of interventricular septum thickness (IVS), left ventricular internal diameter (LVID), and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPW) during systole and diastole were measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVM index was calculated by the following formula*. Functional cardiac parameters in form of ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), and stroke volume (SV) were measured.
LVM was calculated as (g)*
LVM = 0.80[(LVIDd + IVSd + LVPWd)³- (LVIDd)³] × 1.04]+0.6.
LVM index (g/m2) = LVM/BSA.
IVSd is an interventricular septal thickness during diastole.
LVPWd in a LVPW during diastole.
Multiple echocardiography views are used for visual inspection and left ventricle function may be subjectively classified into normal function of (EF ≥55%), mild dysfunction (EF 41%–55%), moderate dysfunction (EF 31%–40%), and severe dysfunction (EF ≤30%) and normal function of FS (FS 26%–45%), mild dysfunction (FS 20–25%), moderate dysfunction (FS 15%–19%), and severe dysfunction (FS ≤14%)., Normal reference values of structural echocardiographic parameters (Park Pediatrics cardiology textbook 6th edition).
Statistical analysis was conducted using the IBM Company, Chicago, United State of America. The numerical data have been represented as mean ± 2SD for more than two groups we used a one-way ANOVA test. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the association of various anthropometric and cardiac parameters and multiple regressions for association and outcome measures of anthropometric and cardiac parameters. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
The study included 150 children of age matched was 6 months to 5 years; out of 150 children, 50 in each group. It was found that 72% of male children in Group 1, 64% in Group 2, and 56% in Group 3. Mean values of various anthropometric parameters in our study such as mean weight of Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 6.62 kg (0.23, standard error of the mean [SEM]), 8.62 kg (0.31, SEM), and 10.8 kg (0.35, SEM), respectively. The mean height of Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 are 70.7 cm (1.27, SEM), 75.1 cm (1.41, SEM), and 81.8 cm (1.49, SEM), respectively. The mean BMI and BSA of all three groups of children is shown in [Table 1]. Age was similar between the groups (P = 0.791). However, weight, height, BMI, and BSA were significantly differenced in a group of children (P < 0.05) [Table 1].
|Table 1: Baseline characteristics of severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and normal children|
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Univariate analysis of various cardiac parameters
In the univariate analysis, we found all structural [Figure 1] and [Figure 2] parameters except LVID during systole and diastole (LVIDs and LVIDd) were significantly reduced in SAM children as compared to MAM and normal children. Functional cardiac parameters such as ejection fraction, FS and SV were significantly low in SAM children [Figure 3] and [Table 2].
|Table 2: Structural* and functional# cardiac parameters of patient cohort|
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|Figure 1: Fractional shortening (FS), Ejection fraction (EF) And Stroke volume (SV) Compared in Children With SAM, MAM and Normal Control|
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|Figure 2: Comparison in SAM, MAM and normal children of various Structural parameters|
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|Figure 3: Comparison in SAM, MAM and normal children of functional parameter|
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Pearson correlation coefficient used for the relationship between anthropometric and cardiac parameters [Table 3]. BSA positively correlates with various structural cardiac parameters such as IVSs, LVPWs, LVIDs, LVMI, and LVM. We found that LVM was strongly correlated with body surface area. According to this LVM increased with BSA and it is important to consider with age and sex. Multiple linear regression coefficients [Table 4] showed relationship between BSA and cardiac parameters (excluded BMI, height, and weight). We found that LVM and BSA associated with each other. BMI was found to have positive correlation with structural and functional cardiac parameter.
|Table 3: Pearson correlation between anthropometric and cardiac parameters of malnourished and normally nourished children|
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|Table 4: Multiple regression between anthropometric data and cardiac parameters|
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| Discussion|| |
In this study, we found if severity of malnutrition increased so structural cardiac parameters were decreased (except LVID). In a previous study,,,, they found similar results in SAM children; structural cardiac dimensions were significantly reduced in comparison to normal children. El Razaky et al. studied comparison of cardiac changes between MAM and healthy children, they found similar result.
We had found cardiac functional parameters (EF, FS, and SV) were significantly reduced with malnutrition increased. However, these changes were within the normal limits. Most of the previous studies,, were based on the comparison of SAM versus normal children. They hypothesized that significant ventricular dysfunction occur in SAM children and these changes in malnourished children affect morbidity and mortality due to fluid management. However, in our study, we hypothesized that cardiac changes were within normal limits, so not affecting fluid management in malnourished children, but our study is limited by not doing serial Echo after fluid management. In a recent study Brent et al. found that no cardiac changes occur during fluid therapy in malnourished children. They found that perturbations of myocardial function were secondary to underlying complications or co-morbidities, and there were few differences between the kwashiorkor and marasmic phenotypes. According to the current WHO guideline avoiding to the administration of fluid in SAM children, these guidelines are based on expert opinion, so remains controversial., Previously El Razaky et al. compared functional cardiac parameter between MAM and healthy children, FS dimension was included and they found it significantly low in MAM children. It may due to the small sample size.
| Conclusions|| |
Structural (except LVID) and functional cardiac changes were significantly reduced with malnourishment. We had also concluded BSA of children strongly correlated with structural cardiac parameters such as LVM and IVSs with specific age and sex.
Limitation of this study required to see these changes reversible or not by serial ECHO may guide the recovery of structural and functional myocardial changes after proper nutrition therapy and after fluid therapy serial ECHO may be done to confirm whether these functional changes affects ventricular function or not. These changes also divide acute versus chronic malnutrition conditions.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]